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Brain activity and connectivity differences in reward value discrimination during effort computation in schizophrenia

Negative symptoms in the motivational domain are strongly correlated with deficits in social and occupational functioning in schizophrenia. However, the neural substrates underlying these symptoms remain largely unknown. Twenty-eight adults with …

Stepwise functional connectivity reveals altered sensory‐multimodal integration in medication‐naïve adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Neuroimaging studies indicate that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present alterations in several functional networks of the sensation-to-cognition spectrum. These alterations include functional overconnectivity within …

Ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal interactions underlie will to fight and die for a cause

Willingness to fight and die (WFD) has been developed as a measure to capture willingness to incur costly sacrifices for the sake of a greater cause in the context of entrenched conflict. WFD measures have been repeatedly used in field studies, …

Neuroimaging 'will to fight' for sacred values: An empirical case study with supporters of an Al Qaeda associate

Violent intergroup conflicts are often motivated by commitments to abstract ideals such as god or nation, so-called 'sacred' values that are insensitive to material trade-offs. There is scant knowledge of how the brain processes costly sacrifices for …

Pregnancy and adolescence entail similar neuroanatomical adaptations: A comparative analysis of cerebral morphometric changes

Mapping the impact of pregnancy on the human brain is essential for understanding the neurobiology of maternal caregiving. Recently, we found that pregnancy leads to a long-lasting reduction in cerebral gray matter volume. However, the morphometric …

Local functional connectivity suggests functional immaturity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Previous studies have associated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with a maturational lag of brain functional networks. Functional connectivity of the human brain changes from primarily local to more distant connectivity patterns …

Just-in-time response to reward as a function of ADHD symptom severity

Aim: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) neuroimaging studies have identified substantial differences in reward-related circuits on a trial-by-trial basis. However, no research to date has evaluated the effect of motivational context on …

Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Sacred Values and Vulnerability to Violent Extremism

Violent extremism is often explicitly motivated by commitment to abstract ideals such as the nation or divine law—so-called “sacred” values that are relatively insensitive to material incentives and define our primary reference groups. …

Reduced willingness to invest effort in schizophrenia with high negative symptoms regardless of reward stimulus presentation and reward value

Background: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia, which are related to poor functioning, are thought to be grounded on aberrant functioning in the reward system. We aimed to disentangle how negative symptoms and two cognitive aspects of goal-directed …

Time and psychostimulants: Opposing long-term structural effects in the adult ADHD brain. A longitudinal MR study

Long-term effects of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate on ADHD patients have been proved to be difficult to capture in cross-sectional studies comparing medicated and non-medicated samples and in longitudinal studies with children, with …